The Tai ethnic group migrated into mainland Southeast Asia over a period of centuries. The word Siam (Thai: ???? RTGS: Sayam) may have originated from Pali (suva??abhūmi, "land of gold") or Sanskrit ????? (?yāma, "dark") or Mon ???? (rhma??a, "stranger"), probably the same root as Shan and Ahom. Xianluo (Chinese: 暹羅) was the Chinese name for Ayutthaya Kingdom, merged from Suphannaphum city state centered in modern-day Suphan Buri and Lavo city state centered in modern-day Lop Buri. To the Thai, the name has mostly been Mueang Thai.[1]
泰人移居到东南亚大陆已经数个世纪;暹罗Siam(泰语:????RTGS: Sayam )可能起源于巴利语(suva??abhūmi ,“黄金之地”)或梵语?????(?yāma,“黑暗”)或孟语 ????(rhma??a,“陌生人/外来户/异邦人”),和掸(Shan),阿洪(Ahom)可能也是出于同源。Xianluo(中文:暹罗)是大城府的中文名称,由以现代素攀武里为中心的素攀武里城邦和以现代华富里为中心的罗斛城邦融合而成。对泰国人来说,他们通常称呼自己为孟泰。
(译注:1,掸(Shan)一般指缅甸的掸族(缅甸掸邦很多人应该都听过。而阿洪(Ahom)指印度的阿洪族,他们与泰国的泰人,以及老挝主体民族佬族,中国傣族其实是一个民族,泰人占据了中南半岛最多的领土。2,泰国的行政单位称为府,和我们中国的省份是一个级别的。大城府,泰语音译为阿犹地亚(Ayutthaya),曾是泰国阿瑜陀耶王朝国都,从1350年至1767年,曾繁荣辉煌数百年。 3,泰国是泰王国的简称,而孟泰(Mueang Thai)一般是泰国人自己对泰国的称呼,这里的Mueang在泰语中的意思是国家,Thai的意思是自由之地,所以孟泰的意思是自由的国家。)
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The country's designation as Siam by Westerners likely came from the Portuguese. Portuguese chronicles noted that the Borommatrailokkanat, king of the Ayutthaya Kingdom, sent an expedition to the Malacca Sultanate at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula in 1455. Following their conquest of Malacca in 1511, the Portuguese sent a diplomatic mission to Ayutthaya. A century later, on 15 August 1612, an East India Company merchantman bearing a letter from King James I, arrived in "the Road of Syam".[2] "By the end of the 19th century, Siam had become so enshrined in geographical nomenclature that it was believed that by this name and no other would it continue to be known and styled."

这个国家被西方人称为 Siam 很可能来自葡萄牙人(译注:中文的暹罗(xianluo)不是源于这个词,而是中国人自己对于当地的古称)。葡萄牙编年史记载, 1455 年,大城府国王戴莱洛迦纳(Borommatrailokkanat)派遣远征队前往位于马来半岛南端的马六甲苏丹国。1511年葡萄牙人征服马六甲后,向大城府派遣了外交使团。一个世纪后,1612 年 8 月 15 日,东印度公司的商人带着詹姆士一世国王的来信,抵达“暹罗(Syam)大道”。到 19 世纪末,暹罗(Siam)在地理命名中变得正式起来,以至于人们相信,通过这个名字,而不是其他名字,人民将继续只知道暹罗这个名字,这个名字也会成为固定的命名。”
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Indianised kingdoms such as the Mon, the Khmer Empire and Malay states of the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra ruled the region. The Thai established their states: Ngoenyang, the Sukhothai Kingdom, the Kingdom of Chiang Mai, Lan Na, and the Ayutthaya Kingdom. These states fought each other and were under constant threat from the Khmers, Burma and Vietnam. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, only Thailand survived European colonial threat in Southeast Asia due to centralising reforms enacted by King Chulalongkorn and because the French and the British decided it would be a neutral territory to avoid conflicts between their colonies. After the end of the absolute monarchy in 1932, Thailand endured sixty years of almost permanent military rule before the establishment of a democratically elected government.

印度化的王国:孟系王国,高棉帝国,马来半岛的马来国家以及苏门答腊(印尼人)统治着现在的泰国区域;而在这里泰人建立了自己的国家:恩贡扬、素可泰王国、清迈王国、兰纳王国和大城府王国。
这些国家互相争斗,并不断受到来自高棉人、缅甸人和越南人的威胁。在19世纪和20世纪初,由于朱拉隆功国王实施的中央集权改革以及法国和英国决定将其作为中立领土以避免其殖民地之间的冲突,所以只有泰国在东南亚经受住了欧洲殖民威胁。
1932 年君主专制结束后,泰国经历了长达60 年的军事统治才迎来民选政府。
(译注:孟:这里的孟是指孟人,需要说下的是孟族是东南亚非常古老的民族,据说发源于中国,兴盛于泰国湄南河的广大平原地区,他们有着发达的发明,精通音律,文学,商业等,泰国的曼谷,缅甸的阳光等也是孟人建立的。柬埔寨,泰语,缅甸语基本上就大量借鉴了孟族的文字。孟族的文明深深的影响了后来崛起的缅甸人和大规模南下的泰人,说他们是中南半岛半个文明之母也不为过,如果说泰人是中南半岛的日耳曼人,他们就是中南半岛的罗马人。他们早期在东南亚的泰国柬埔寨缅甸建立了大量的王国,一些缅甸历史上赫赫有名的王朝就是孟族人建立的。不过他们在中世纪后衰落了,不是被搞棉化就是被泰国化逐渐消失,现在的孟人只有缅甸还有存在,而且人数还较多。)

Prehistoric Thailand
Mainland Southeast Asia had been a home to various indigenous communities for thousands of years. The discovery of Homo erectus fossils such as Lampang man is an example of archaic hominids. The remains were first discovered during excavations in Lampang Province. The finds have been dated from roughly 1,000,000–500,000 years ago in the Pleistocene. Stone artefacts dating to 40,000 years ago have been recovered from, e.g., Tham Lod rockshelter in Mae Hong Son and Lang Rongrien Rockshelter in Krabi, peninsular Thailand.[4] The archaeological data between 18,000–3,000 years ago primarily derive from cave and rock shelter sites, and are associated with Hoabinhian foragers.[5]

史前泰国:
几千年来,东南亚大陆一直是各种土著社区的家园,发现像兰邦人这样的直立人化石是古代人类的一个例子;这些遗骸是在兰邦府的发掘过程中首次发现的。这些发现可追溯到大约一百万至五十万年前的更新世。在泰国半岛的湄宏顺府的塔姆洛德岩石居所遗址(Tham Lod rockshelter)和郎荣日岩石洞穴遗址(Lang Rongrien Rockhelter)发现了距今40000年的石制文物。18000年至3000年前的考古数据主要来自洞穴和岩石居所,并与和平文化(Hoabinhian)的狩猎采集人群有关。
(译注,1,更新世亦称为洪积世(从2588000年前到11700年前),英国地质学家莱伊尔1839年创用,1846年福布斯又把更新世称为冰川世。地质时代第四纪的早期。 2,和平文化(英语:Hoabinhian Culture)指的是东南亚中石器时代至新石器时代早期的文化。)

Initial states and Indianized states
There are many sites in present-day Thailand dating to the Bronze (1500–500 BCE) and Iron Ages (500 BCE-500 CE). The site of Ban Chiang (around Udon Thani Province) currently ranks as the earliest known center of copper and bronze production in Southeast Asia and has been dated to around 2,000 years BCE.[6] Thailand also participated in the Maritime Jade Road, which existed for 3,000 years, from 2000 BCE to 1000 CE.[7][8][9]


泰国乌隆府位置,离老挝万象不远了。
早期王国与印度化王国:
当今泰国有许多遗址可追溯到青铜时代(公元前 1500-500 年)和铁器时代(公元前 500 年-公元 500 年)。班清遗址(在乌隆府附近)目前是东南亚已知最早的铜和青铜生产中心,其历史可以追溯到公元前2000年左右。泰国还参与了海上翡翠之路的贸易,这条路从公元前2000年到公元前1000年,存在了3000多年。
(译注:自 1930 年代以来,在菲律宾的许多考古发掘中发现了由白色和绿色软玉制成的菲律宾玉文化或玉器制品,这些玉石基本都来自台湾的矿床,其历史可追溯至公元前 2000 年至 1500 年。这些文物既有凿子等工具,也有玲玲耳环、手镯和珠子 等装饰品,这条贸易之路从公元 500年开始衰落, 到公元 1000 年已经停止。)

The oldest known records of a political entity in Indochina are attributed to Funan - centered in the Mekong Delta and comprising territories inside modern day Thailand.[11] Chinese annals confirm Funan's existence as early as the 1st century CE. Archaeological documentation implies an extensive human settlement history since the 4th century BCE.

中南半岛最古老的国家实体是扶南王国,它以湄公河三角洲为中心,包括现代泰国境内的部分领土。早在公元1世纪,中国的史册就证实了扶南的存在。考古文献揭示了自公元前4世纪以来就有大量的人类在此定居的历史。
(译注:扶南国(约1世纪~约7世纪),国祚长达六百多年又作夫南国、跋南国,意为“山岳”,是曾经存在于古代中南半岛上的一个古老王国。其辖境大致相当于当今柬埔寨全部国土以及老挝南部、越南南部和泰国东南部一带。扶南是历史上第一个出现在中国古代的史籍上的东南亚国家,后为属国真腊所攻灭。后来及其强盛的吴哥王朝就是在扶南和真腊的基础上后来演化而来的。)



公元一世纪的扶南王国



全盛时期的扶南王国,公元6世纪。



七世纪,扶南王国的属国真腊崛起(属于其内部的城邦),夺取了扶南王国。

The region also hosted a number of indigenous Austroasiatic-speaking and Malayo-Sumbawan-speaking civilisations. However, little is known about Thailand before the 13th century, as the literary and concrete sources are scarce and most of the knowledge about this period is gleaned from archaeological evidence. Similar to other regions in Southeast Asia, Thailand was heavily influenced by the culture and religions of India, starting with the Kingdom of Funan around the first century until the Khmer Empire.[13] These "Indianised kingdoms" are composing of Dvaravati, Srivijaya and the Khmer Empire.[14] E. A. Voretzsch believes that Buddhism must have been flowing into Thailand from India at the time of the Indian emperor Ashoka of the Maurya Empire and into the first millennium.[14] Later Thailand was influenced by the south Indian Pallava dynasty and north Indian Gupta Empire.

该地区还拥有许多南亚语族(澳亚文明圈)和马来系-苏巴旺人的土著文明。然而,在 13 世纪之前,人们对泰国知之甚少,因为文学和具体资料很少,而且关于这一时期的大部分知识都是从考古证据中收集的。与东南亚其他地区类似,泰国深受印度文化和宗教的影响,其影响从公元一世纪左右的扶南王国开始,一直到高棉帝国。这些“印度化王国”分别是堕罗钵底、室利佛逝(三佛齐),以及高棉帝国。学者EA Voretzsch认为,在印度孔雀帝国,阿育王时代,佛教从印度传入泰国的,这是泰国佛教化的第一个一千年,之后泰国再次受到南印度帕拉瓦王朝和北印度笈多王朝的影响。



译注:堕罗钵底,堕罗钵底国,古国名。
见《大唐西域记》卷十。汉文古籍亦作杜和钵底、堕和罗、独和罗、堕和罗钵底等。乃孟人于6世纪下半叶所建。故地在今泰国湄南河下游地区。都拉哇普拉(在今泰国华富里,一说在今佛统)。国人信仰佛教,有自己的语言和文字。物产丰富,并以堕和罗犀闻名于当时。国中居民以农商为业,以象、马为主要交通工具。商业比较发达,全国有六个贸易集市,买卖皆用银钱,其大小有如榆叶。堕罗钵底国的使者曾于638和649年两次访问中国唐都长安,送来象牙、火珠、白鹦鹉等礼品。)



室利佛逝(音译自梵文Sri Vijaya),简称佛逝。宋代后,中国史籍改称三佛齐王国。
时间在公元7-14世纪,存在于巽他群岛的一个信奉大乘佛教的海上强国。起源于苏门答腊岛东南部的巨港,在其鼎盛时期,势力范围包括马来半岛和巽他群岛的大部分地区。控制诸蕃水道之要冲,经济上主要依靠过境贸易。其首都先为 巨港,后北迁占碑。明代洪武三十年(1397年),东爪哇满者伯夷国灭三佛齐旧王朝,当时旅居巨港的华人一千多人拥戴广东南海(今海南)人梁道明为王,建新三佛齐王朝,公元1470年被满者伯夷所灭。



帕拉瓦王朝(Pallava dynasty),南印度古王朝。起源不详。从6世纪后半期的僧诃毗湿奴(Simhavishnu)起,王朝的历史比较清楚。帕拉瓦是著名的印度教王国,国王信奉毗湿奴或湿婆,对其他宗教也能宽容。奖励文学艺术,特别是建筑和雕刻,开创了达罗毗荼风格。建志/建志补罗为王国的政治、经济和文化中心,名胜有凯拉萨纳塔等著名寺庙。玄奘曾到此访问
笈多王朝(Gupta Dynasty,约320年—约540年),是中世纪统一大片印度的第一个封建王朝。笈多王朝是印度中世纪的黄金时代,这个时代大乘佛教盛行,印度教也繁荣,信仰毗湿奴、湿婆和梵天等三大主神的三大教派广泛流行。笈多诸王虽都信奉印度教,但为缓和民族及教派之间的矛盾,采取宗教兼容政策,放任各派宗教自由发展。大乘佛教中心那烂陀寺,成为印度中世纪前期的宗教和学术文化中心。)



笈多王朝全盛时期

————————

Central Thailand 泰国中部

The Chao Phraya River in what is now central Thailand had once been the home of the Mon Dvaravati culture, which prevailed from the 7th century to the 10th century.[15] Samuel Beal discovered the polity among the Chinese writings on Southeast Asia as "Duoluobodi". During the early 20th century archaeological excavations led by George Coedès found Nakhon Pathom Province to be a centre of Dvaravati culture. The two most important sites were Nakorn Pathom and U Thong (in modern Suphan Buri Province). The inscxtions of Dvaravati were in Sanskrit and Mon using the scxt derived from the Pallava alphabet of the South Indian Pallava dynasty.


堕罗钵底王国
位于现在泰国中部的湄南河曾经是孟-堕罗钵底时期文化的发源地,堕罗钵底文化从 7 世纪到 10 世纪盛行。西方汉学家塞缪尔·比尔(Samuel Beal)在中国关于东南亚的著作中发现了“堕罗钵底”的政权。在 20 世纪初期,由戈岱司(George Coedès)领导的考古发掘发现佛统府是堕罗钵底文化的中心。堕罗钵底文化最重要的两个地点是佛统府和乌通国(位于现代素攀武里府)。堕罗钵底文化的铭文是梵文和孟文,使用源自南印度帕拉瓦王朝的帕拉瓦字母。
(译注:George Coedès是20世纪法国有名东方学家,中文名为戈岱司。塞缪尔·比尔(Samuel Beal)是著名的西方汉学家。佛统府(英文:Nakhon Pathom)是泰国的中部之一个府,佛统府在古代时非常繁荣,是泰国最古老的城市,且是印度佛教最早传入泰国时的首个弘扬佛教的地方。)

The religion of Dvaravati is thought to be Theravada Buddhism through contacts with Sri Lanka, with the ruling class also participating in Hindu rites. Dvaravati art, including the Buddha sculptures and stupas, showed strong similarities to those of the Gupta Empire of India. The eastern parts of the Chao Phraya valley were subjected to a more Khmer and Hindu influence as the inscxtions are found in Khmer and Sanskrit.

因为与斯里兰卡的文化交流,堕罗钵底的宗教被认为是上座部佛教,统治阶级也会参加印度教仪式。堕罗钵底的艺术,包括佛像和佛塔,与印度笈多帝国的艺术有着强烈的相似之处。湄南河流域东部受到高棉语和印度教的影响,因为该地区发现的铭文是高棉语或梵语。
(译注:上座部佛教又叫南传佛教,盛行于东南亚的缅甸、泰国、柬埔寨和老挝,南亚的斯里兰卡,以及我国的云南省。高棉语一般指柬埔寨语。 柬埔寨语(旧称高棉语)属于南亚语系—孟-高棉语族,以金边口音为标准,现代柬埔寨语中也吸收了不少外来语,其中有梵语、巴利语、法语、汉语、泰语、越南语等。)

Dvaravati was a network of city-states paying tribute to more powerful ones according to the mandala political model. Dvaravati culture expanded into Isan as well as south as far as the Kra Isthmus. The culture lost power around the 10th century when they submitted to the more unified Lavo-Khmer polity.

堕罗钵底是曼陀罗政治模式的城邦网络政权,内部是一级一级像更强大的城邦上贡的模式。堕罗钵底文化扩展到过伊桑以及南部的克拉地峡。大约在10世纪,当他们屈服于更统一的罗斛-高棉政权时,其文明就衰落了。
(译注:曼陀罗是梵语,意思是圆圈,或者祭坛,在东南亚的政治上是一种朝贡体系,圆圈的正中心代表国王,离中心越远的代表地位最低的邦国。基本上就是一级一级的控制。这就会导致有些处在曼陀罗最边缘的国家有时候会同时像两个曼陀罗体系朝贡。比如同时期有的城邦同时像吴哥王朝和大城府朝贡。)
罗斛:也叫罗涡国,佛教国家,12世纪孟人在今泰国南部素攀武里一带建立的国家。都城为罗斛(今华富里)。撰于1225年的《诸蕃志》把罗斛列为真腊的属国之一。可见13世纪初叶以前,罗斛被置于真腊的统治之下。此后,真腊逐渐衰落,罗斛乘机独立。后来被高棉吞并,独立又吞并,最后被高棉化了,变成了高棉化印度教城邦。



罗斛:也叫罗涡国,全盛时期版图。

Around the 10th century, the city-states of Dvaravati merged into two mandalas, the Lavo (modern Lopburi) and the Suvarnabhumi (modern Suphan Buri). According to a legend in the Northern Chronicles, in 903, a king of Tambralinga invaded and took Lavo and installed a Malay prince on the Lavo throne. The Malay prince was married to a Khmer princess who had fled an Angkorian dynastic bloodbath. The son of the couple contested the Khmer throne and became Suryavarman I, thus bringing Lavo under Khmer domination through the marital unx. Suryavarman I also expanded into the Khorat Plateau (later styled "Isan"), constructing many temples.

大约在10世纪,堕罗钵底城邦被并入了为两个曼陀罗体系中,即罗斛(现代华富里Lopburi)和苏凡纳布(现代素攀武里府Suphan Buri)。根据北方编年史中的一个传说,公元903 年,丹马令王国国王入侵并占领了罗斛,并让一位马来王子登上了罗斛的王位。这位马来王子取了一位逃离吴哥王朝血腥屠杀的高棉公主。这对夫妇的儿子夺取了高棉王位并成为苏耶跋摩一世,也因为联姻的原因,将罗斛置于高棉统治之下。苏耶跋摩一世也扩张到呵叻高原(后来被称为“伊桑”),建造了许多寺庙。



丹马令王国
(译注:丹马令,古国名。故地在今泰国马来半岛的洛坤,为三佛齐属国。宋咸平四年(1001),国主多须机遣使朝贡,宋真宗召见赐以冠服,及还又赐多须机诏书,建立友好关系。
苏耶跋摩一世,是柬埔寨三神王之一,(另两位为苏耶跋摩二世、阇耶跋摩七世),因父母的联姻关系血缘关系,于1001年抵达真腊东部海岸,先后击败众多竞争对手,于1010年正式登位吴哥王朝为王。身为篡位者,为巩固王位合法性,与前对手的遗孀联姻,并要求一切新旧臣僚向其效忠。他是第一位皈依大乘佛教的吴哥国王。)



高棉全盛时期

Suryavarman, however, had no male heirs and again Lavo was independent. After the death of King Narai of Lavo, however, Lavo was plunged into bloody civil war and the Khmer under Suryavarman II took advantage by invading Lavo and installing his son as the King of Lavo. The repeated but discontinued Khmer domination eventually Khmerized Lavo. Lavo was transformed from a Theravadin Mon Dvaravati city into a Hindu Khmer one. Lavo became the entrep?t of Khmer culture and power of the Chao Phraya river basin. The bas-relief at Angkor Wat shows a Lavo army as one of the subordinates to Angkor. One interesting note is that a Tai army was shown as a part of Lavo army, a century before the establishment of the "Sukhothai Kingdom".

然而,苏耶跋摩没有男性继承人,罗斛再次独立。但是,在罗斛国王那莱死后,罗斛陷入了血腥的内战,苏耶跋摩二世统治下的高棉人趁机入侵罗斛,并任命他的儿子为罗斛国王。高棉人虽然中断过统治,但是反反复复控制该地,最终让罗斛成功高棉化。罗斛从上座部佛教的孟-堕罗钵底文化的城邦转变为印度教高棉城邦。罗斛成为了湄南河流域高棉文化和权力的转口。吴哥窟的浅浮雕作品显示了一支罗斛军队是吴哥王朝(高棉帝国)的下属之一;一个有趣的注意事项是,在“素可泰王国”建立前一个世纪,一支泰族军队被展示为罗斛军队的一部分”。
(译注;素可泰王国,“素可泰王朝”是泰人在湄南河中上游地区建立的古代王朝。)
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1238年,素可泰王国建立,算是泰人的第一个国家,中国这边古籍称其为暹罗。
那时候罗斛也独立了,不过后来又被吞并了。